Gangsters 1

The crack epidemic and the “War on Drugs” heavily influenced hip hop’s early content and aesthetics. As Prof. Jeffry Ogbar states,

The illicit trade with all of its complexities had an indelible imprint on the core aesthetics, style, iconography and messages of hip hop….No force has been as remarkably central to the lyrical landscape [of rap music] as the drug trade.


Prof. Jeffrey Ogbar speaking at the 2012 Tupac Shakur Conference in Atlanta.



  • Gangsters 1